царевец

Историята на хълма „Царевец“ може да се проследи до 4200г. пр. Хр., когато е било построено първото селище на хълма. През 5в. Пр.хр. Византииската империя изгражда най-големия си град – Зикидева, който е бил унижтожен 2 века по-късно по време на аваро-славянските нашествия. През 1187г., братята Асен и Петър обявяват Търново за столица на Второто българско царство. Средновековният град е бил разположен на 4-те хълма – „Царевец“, „Трапезица“, „Света гора“ и „Девинград“. По онова време Търново е бил сравняван и характеризиран като новият Йерусалим, Рим и Константинопол.

Градът, по-времето на Второто българско царство, се превърнал в център на политическия, социалния и култирния живот на българската държава, а крепостта на хълма „Царевец“ се е смятала за непревземаема .

Крепостта е имала три входа. Главният вход се е намирал от западната част и се състои от тви последователни порти, отбранявани от кули. В централната част на крепостта е бил разположен Дворцовият комплекс. Той се състоял от Тронна зала, Дворцова църква и царски покои. В крепостта „Царевец“ са царували Асеневци – царете Петър, Асен, Калоян и Иван Асен II.

Освен царете, болярите и духовенството, на хълма са живяли и обикновенни хора, обслужващи висшата класа. При разкопки, на хълма са открити над 350 основи на жилищни и стопански сгради. Според историците, населението на „Царевец“ по време на Второто българско царство е наброявало 3000-3300 души. На върха на хълма и в центъра на крепостта се намира патриаршеската църква – „Възкресение Христово“.

На 17 юли 1393г. Търново е завладян от войските на султан Баязид 1. Крепостта и патриаршията са били опожарени и разрушени. Рестраврацията на крепостта започва през 1930г. и е завършена през 1981г. Крепостта „Царевец“ е обявена за паметник на културата с национално значение през 1964г.

В днешно време може да бъде видян напълно реставрираният патриаршески храм “Възнесение Господне”. Стенописите във вътрешността му са дело на художника Теофан Сокеров. В мащабни композиции са представени личности и най-важните моменти от средновековната ни история.

Посетителите на града могат да посетят „Царевец“ и да се запознаят отблизо с историята на този величествен средновековен град. Вратите на крепостта са отворени за посетители и туристи всеки ден.

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